According to DSM-5 criteria, a learning disability is defined as difficulty learning and using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least one of the following symptoms that have persisted for at least six months, despite the provision of interventions that target those difficulties:
- Inaccurate or slow and effortful word reading (decoding) including dyslexia
- Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read (reading comprehension)
- Difficulty with spelling
- Difficulty with written expression including dysgraphia
- Difficulty mastering number sense, number facts, calculation, or math reasoning including dyscalculia
Dyslexia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of learning difficulties characterized by problems with accurate or fluent word recognition, poor decoding, and poor spelling abilities.
Dyscalculia is an alternative term used to refer to a pattern of difficulties characterized by problems processing numerical information, learning arithmetic facts, and performing accurate or fluent calculations.